Introduction of FDCA
2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), also known as dehydromucic acid and pyromucic acid, is an organic compound that was first detected in human urine. In fact, a healthy human produces 3-5 mg/day. It is a very stable compound. Some of its physical properties, such as insolubility in most of common solvents and a very high melting point (it melts at 342 °C), seem to indicate intermolecular hydrogen bonding. FDCA has two carboxylic acid groups, which makes it a suitable monomer for polycondensation reactions with diols or diamines.
It is one of the top 12 value-added biobased chemicals listed by the US DoE in 2004. The list was updated in 2010 and FDCA was included again, but this time in a group together with furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). Those three molecules are the main representatives of the furanics (furan derivatives) that has been referred to as “Sleeping Giants” because of their enormous market potential. In recent years, FDCA has received significant attention due to its wide application in many fields, particularly as a substitute of petrochemical-derived terephthalic acid in the synthesis of useful polymers.