Application of FDCA
FDCA can be used for a range of applications, including green chemicals and biopolymers. Despite its chemical stability, it undergoes reactions typical for carboxylic acids, giving carboxylic dihalides, esters and amides. The materials market represents a multi-billion-euro business and includes plastics, plasticizers, thermosets and coatings.
Below, main applications are shortly described:
- Polyesters, polyamides and polyurethanes
The most important group of FDCA conversions is undoubtedly the polymerisation. The FDCA monomer offers great opportunities to create a wide range of polymers: polyesters (bottles, containers and films), polyamides (for new nylons) and polyurethanes.
FDCA esters have recently been evaluated as replacements for phthalate plasticizers for PVC.
- Fire foams
FDCA, as most of polycarboxylic acids, is an ingredient of fire foams. Such foams help to extinguish fires in a short time caused by polar and non-polar solvents.
- Precursor of levulinic and succinic acids
All the applications of these platform molecules.
FDCA has been largely applied in pharmacology. It was demonstrated that its diethyl ester had a strong anaesthetic action similar to cocaine. Screening studies on some FDCA derivatives showed important anti-bacterial properties. A diluted solution of FDCA in tetrahydrofuran is utilised for preparing artificial veins for transplantation.